The Ancient Art of Advocacy Logo


ex-er-ga'-si-a / From Greek: ex, "out" and ergon, "work" (a "working out")
Also spelt: exargasia, epexergasia
Also known as: expolitio, expolicio, refining, working out

Repetition of the same idea, changing either its words, its delivery, or the general treatment it is given. A method for amplification, variation, and explanation. As such, exergasia compares to the progymnasmata exercises.


No peril is so great that a wise man would think it ought to be avoided when the safety of the father land is at stake. When the lasting security of the state is in question, the man endowed with good principles will undoubtedly believe that in defence of the fortunes of the republic he ought to shun no crisis of life, and he will ever persist in the determination eagerly to enter, for the fatherland, any combat, however great the peril to life.
In the following example, each of the three clauses repeats the same idea in different terms:
Hear the right, O LORD, attend unto my cry, give ear unto my prayer... —Psalm 17:1

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The above information on individual rhetorical techniques is reproduced from the website “Silva Rhetoricae” ( ) under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Credit for this content lies with Professor Gideon O Burton of Brigham Young University.