Figures of pathos
Although any figure of speech may be employed to evoke an emotional response, many figures are specifically designed to do so, or else are themselves functions of the emotional state of the speaker. In a legal context, pathos has historically been used in the statement of facts, as part of witness handling and also in the closing speech which usually tries to bring together all of the three key elements of a speech - the figures of ethos, pathos and logos.
An example of pathos would be the following question:
"Why are you so stupid?"
This use of epiplexis, a kind of rhetorical question, does not seek the information it ostensibly asks for, but is likely an attempt to provoke anger in the listener.
Figures used to provoke emotional response (pathos)
Adhortatio -A comandment, promise, or exhortation intended to move one's consent or desires.
Adynaton -The expression of the inability of expression —almost always emotional in its nature.
Aganactesis -an exclamation proceeding from deep indignation.
Apagoresis - this is a statement designed to inhibit someone from doing something.
Aposiopesis - Breaking off suddenly in the middle of speaking, usually to portray being overcome with emotion.
Apostrophe - this involves turning one's speech from one audience to another, or addressing oneself to an abstraction or the absent—almost always as a way of increasing appeal through emotion.
Cataplexis - Threatening/prophecying payback for ill doing.
Conduplicatio - this involves the repetition of a word or words in adjacent phrases or clauses, either to amplify the thought or to express emotion.
Congeries - Piling up words of differing meaning but for a similar emotional effect.
Deesis - the vehement expression of desire put in terms of "for someone's sake" or "for God's sake."
Descriptio- vivid description, especially of the consequences of an act, that stirs up its hearers. (See enargia, below)
Diacope - Repetition of a word with one or more between, usually to express deep feeling.
Ecphonesis - an emotional exclamation.
Enargia aka vivid description, can be inherently moving, especially when depicting things graphic in nature.
Energia, the vigor with which one expresses oneself, can obviously be emotionally affecting.
Epanorthosis- amending a first thought by altering it to make it stronger or more vehement.
Epimone - persistent repetition of the same plea in much the same words, a direct method for underscoring the pathetic appeal.
Epiplexis-asking questions in order to chide, to express grief, or to inveigh.
Epitrope- a figure in which one turns things over to one's hearers (often pathetically).
Excitatio-to excite an audience, especially out of a stupor or boredom.
Exuscitatio-stirring others by one's own vehement feeling.
Inter se pugnantia-using direct address to reprove someone before an audience openly.
Mempsis-expressing complaint and seeking help.
Ominatio- prophecy of evil. As the term's name connotes, this can be "ominous" in tone.
Paenismus-expressing joy for blessings obtained or an evil avoided.
Pathopoeia-a speech or figure designed to arouse emotion.
Perclusio- a threat against someone, or something.
Synonymia- the use of several synonyms together to amplify or explain a given subject or term. A kind of repetition that adds force.
Figures of logos
Figures of ethos
Figures of Amplification (Some amplifying figures have the purpose of increasing the emotional effect of an expression.)